Conservation Actions

There are no conservation areas or programs on Siau Island. There is virtually no tourism industry on the island, either. There are proposals by local conservation NGOs, in conjunction with local government and International NGOs to remedy these shortcomings.

Location Information

The species is found only on Siau Island (Indonesia), although it is conceivable that they are also present on some very small islands that are in close proximity to Siau and separated only by shallow ocean.

Geographic Range



Population Information

Shekelle and Salim (2009a) used remote sensing of remaining habitat and population density estimates from studies of other tarsier taxa to estimate the remaining population as being 1,358–12,470 individuals. The large range is a result of a large number of unknown pixels (obscured by clouds) in the GIS data set. Field surveys indicate no remaining primary habitat, however. Local people reported considerable declines of numbers since the late 1990s (Shekelle and Salim 2009b).


The primary threat to this taxon is that its range is restricted to one small, volcanic island. The volcano, Mt. Karengentang, is active and dominates more than 50% of its geographical range. This threat is exacerbated by a relatively large human population (311 people/km²) that has converted virtually all of the primary habitat to some form of human use (Shekelle and Salim 2009a, 2009b). In these ways, Tarsius tumpara faces a set of threats similar to those faced by T. sangirensis, but the threats are more acute for T. tumpara: a smaller island, a more active volcano, and higher human population density. Most troubling, however, are numerous credible reports that the local human population regularly eats tarsiers, up to 5-10 animals at a sitting, and that tarsiers have been extirpated from areas where they were common as recently as 10 years ago.

Tarsius tumpara is considered to be one the world’s 25 most endangered primates by the IUCN Species Survival Commission Primate Specialist Group (Shekelle and Salim 2007, 2009b).

IUCN Red List Account Link

Please click here to see the species' IUCN Red List Account page.

Photo Credits

Geoff Deehan - (category and featured image)