Conservation Actions

Presbytis femoralis is only found in Singapore and southern Peninsular Malaysia. The conservation of this species would rely on long-term cross-border collaboration. In 2016, an IUCN Species Action Plan for the conservation of P. femoralis was developed, and the Raffles’ Banded Langur Working Group was formed with representatives from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, universities, and experts from both countries (Ang et al. 2016).

In order to facilitate safe crossing over roads which fragmented the habitats of P. femoralis, artificial structures in the form of rope bridges were trialled and installed in Singapore (Central Catchment Nature Reserve) and Malaysia (Gunung Panti) (Ang 2020). In Singapore, the rope bridges have been successfully used by P. femoralis.
Since 2016, a citizen science program was started in Singapore where volunteers were trained to collect data on the langurs within Central Catchment Nature Reserve. A similar program could begin in Malaysia to assist with population monitoring.

In the long term, conservation translocation of individuals of P. femoralis between Singapore and Malaysia might need to be considered to restore and maintain the genetic health of the populations and increase their genetic adaptive potential (Ang et al. 2012).

This species is protected in Peninsular Malaysia as it is listed on Schedule 1 under the name Presbytis spp. in the Wildlife Conservation (Amendment of Schedule) Order 2012. The species is protected in Singapore under the Protected Wildlife Species Rules 2020 of the Wildlife Act (Chapter 351) as Presbytis femoralis femoralis.

Location Information

This species is found in southern Peninsular Malaysia (from extreme south of Pahang State into Johor State) and the Republic of Singapore.

Geographic Range


Malaysia, Singapore

Population Information

In Singapore, Banded Leaf Monkeys are only found in the Central Catchment Nature Reserve (Hüttche 1994, Ang 2010) and no longer found in the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve after the last individual there was killed by dogs in 1987 (Yang and Lua 1988). Currently, there are 66 individuals in the Singapore population of P. femoralis with the sex ratio (male:female:unknown) as 26:24:16 (Ang 2020).

In Malaysia, most of the populations occur in the state of Johor which are isolated from each other (Endau Rompin National Park, Gunung Arong, Gunung Belumut, Gunung Lambak, Gunung Panti, Gunung Pulai, Kampung Johor Lama), with only one known population in the state of Pahang (Endau Rompin National Park). It is believed that only a few hundred individuals remain in the Malaysian states of Johor and Pahang (Abdul-Latiff et al. 2019, Ang 2020).


Deforestation and habitat conversion continue to be the major threats to this species. It is particularly affected by forest clearance and disturbance from urban development in Singapore and from oil palm plantations in Malaysia. As a result, known populations are distributed in fragmented habitats, and fragmentation is thus recognized as an additional stress. The populations in Malaysia and Singapore are isolated from one another by the Strait of Johor. In Singapore, P. femoralis showed low genetic variability (Ang et al. 2012, Srivathsan et al. 2016). Road casualties have also been recorded as individuals continue to travel between fragmented habitats (Ang and Jabbar 2020). In Malaysia, additional threats have been reported from human-wildlife interactions.


IUCN Red List Account Link

Please click here to see the species' IUCN Red List Account page.

Photo Credits

Lee Zan Hui