Conservation Actions

This species is listed on CITES Appendix I and is protected by the Indonesian law. It currently occurs in only one officially protected area (Siberut National Park), and is never seen in captivity (M. Richardson pers. comm.). Whittaker (2006) suggests the following conservation actions: "1) increased protection for Siberut National Park, which currently lacks enforcement, 2) formal protection of the Peleonan forest in North Siberut, which is home to unusually high primate populations and is easily accessible, 3) protection of areas in the Pagai Islands by cooperating with a logging corporation that has practiced sustainable logging technique there since 1971, 4) conservation education, especially regarding hunting, and 5) the development of alternative economic models for the local people to reduce the likelihood of selling off their lands to logging companies."

Location Information

This species is endemic to Indonesia. It is confined to the Mentawai Islands off the western coast of Sumatra (Pagai Selatan, Pagai Utara, Siberut, Sipora, and a few offshore islets).

S. s. concolor
Occurs in the Mentawai Archipelago (Pagai Selatan, Pagai Utara, Sipora, and the nearby islets of Simalegu and Sinakak).

S. s. siberu
Occurs in the Mentawai Archipelago (Siberut).

Population Information

The Siberut subspecies has the largest population size, with an estimated 6,000-15,500 individuals within Siberut National Park. The southern subspecies is urgently in need of protective measures, with a total population of 700-1,800 individuals (Whittaker 2006). The current estimate for the species as a whole is therefore from 6,700 to 17,300 individuals, down from an estimated population of 26,000 in 1980. This represents a decline of 33 to 75% in 20 years. The most recent surveys of this species estimated densities from 5 individuals/km2 in unlogged forest, to 2.5 individuals in forest patches logged 20 years ago (Paciulli 2004). The mean population density for this species was estimated at 21 individuals/km2 in 1994 (Tenaza and Fuentes 1995). This would indicate a decline of 73 to 90% in 10 years (Whittaker 2006).


This species is threatened mainly by heavy hunting and commercial logging (Whittaker 2006). It is also threatened by conversion to oil palm plantations, and forest clearing and product extraction by local people (Whittaker 2006).
Recently, hunting pressure has increased because of improved access to remote areas due to logging roads and tracks, as well as the replacement of bows and arrows with 177 caliber air rifles (Whittaker 2006). Also, local rituals and taboos that formerly regulated hunting have been replaced by Christianity (Whittaker 2006). S. concolor is the preferred game species of most Mentawai hunters (Mitchell and Tilson 1986; Fuentes 2002; Paciulli 2004). Tenaza (1989) estimated that twice as many individuals are killed by hunters each year as are born in the Pagai Islands. Animals are sometimes taken for the pet trade.

IUCN Red List Account Link

Please click here to see the species' IUCN Red List Account page.

Photo Credits

Kasih Putri (category and featured image)