Conservation Actions

This species is listed under CITES Appendix II. It occurs in several protected areas (Gunung Lokon, Gunung Amban,Tangkoko Batuangus, Dua Saudara, and Batu Putih). However, there is urgent action needed to stop the encroachment into protected areas especially Tangkoko, which represents the most likely viable natural remaining population of the species to survive. M. nigra is relatively common in captivity.

Action Plan

Macaca Nigra Species Conservation Action Plan - Third Draft July 2015

Location Information

This species occurs on northeastern Sulawesi, Indonesia and the adjacent islands of Pulau Manadotua and Pulau Talise. It was historically found on Pulau Lembeh as well but has probably been extirpated from there. On Sulawesi it is found on the northern arm east of the Onggak Dumoga River and Mount Padang to the tip of the peninsula (Groves 2001). There is a sizeable introduced population on Pulau Bacan in the Maluku Islands (Indonesia).

Geographic Range



Population Information

Density is estimated to be approximately 3 individuals/km2, except in Tangkoko Batuangus where it is approximately 60 individuals/km2 (J. Supriatna pers. comm.). The introduced population on the island of Pulau Bacan in the Moluccas probably numbers at least 100,000 individuals (Rosenbaum et al. 1998), but is not considered in this assessment.


There is extensive habitat loss within its range. Hunting for bush meat is a major threat, so although the habitat appears to be intact in many places much of it is currently unoccupied. Some animals are also caught for the live animal trade. Extensive illegal "small scale" open area mining for gold, using mercury, within the parks is a regional threat. Shifting cultivation by local communities is an increasing threat. This is probably the most threatened primate species on Sulawesi (J. Burton pers. comm.).


IUCN Red List Account Link

Please click here to see the species' IUCN Red List Account page.

Photo Credits

Roland Wirth (category and featured image)